Hair loss refers to the partial or total loss of hair from part of the body where normally it grows.
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Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow
Hair is said to be a person's crowning glory. Most of the hair on a person's head is growing constantly. Scalp hair grows about half an inch per month, although this growth rate slows as people age. The growth stage lasts for 2 to 6 years. It is followed by a resting stage, lasting for 2 to 3 months, during which the hair still is attached but no longer grows. After the resting stage, the hair falls out, and a new hair starts to form in the same spot. The average person loses about 50 to 100 hairs a day as part of this normal cycle. Hair loss occurs when people lose more hairs than normal each day or when new hairs do not grow to replace the lost ones.
How Does Hair Grow?
To understand hair loss, it helps to know something about how hair is formed. Hair is made of keratin (KER-a-tin), the same protein that makes up nails and the outer layer of skin. The part of a hair that shows is called the hair shaft. Below the skin is the hair root, which is enclosed in the follicle (FOL-i-kul), a tiny, bulb-shaped structure. The root is alive, but the shaft is composed of dead tissue made by the follicle.
What Is Hair Loss?
Hair loss refers to the partial or total loss of hair from part of the body where normally it grows, especially the scalp. Alopecia (AL-o-PEE-sha) is the medical term for baldness, which is the loss of all or a significant part of the scalp hair. Unlike other parts of the body, hair is mostly decorative. Losing hair is not a medical problem in itself, although, in some cases, it can be a sign of illness. Many people are perfectly comfortable being bald. However, others feel that hair loss makes them less attractive.
What Causes Hair Loss?
More than 40 million men and 20 million women in the United States have some hair loss. It is quite normal for both men and women to see some thinning of their scalp hair as they get older. However, hair loss can occur for a number of other reasons as well. Following are some forms of hair loss and their causes.
Loss of scalp hair due to aging affects most people of both sexes sooner or later. At least 95 percent of hair loss is of this kind. The condition is caused by a combination of age, genetics, and certain hormones * called androgens (AN-dro-jenz). These last two factors give the condition its medical name: androgenetic (AN-dro-je-NET-ik) alopecia. In men, the condition usually starts with a hairline that keeps moving higher, followed by a thin or bald spot that appears on top of the head. Eventually, all that may be left is a horseshoe-shaped fringe of hair around the sides and back of the head. This is known as male-pattern baldness. In women, the condition usually leads to thinning of the hair over the whole head. This is especially common after menopause * . It is known as female-pattern baldness.
Alopecia areata (ar-ee-AY-ta) can strike people of any age, including children and young adults. This condition leads to sudden hair loss, often in round patches on the scalp about the size of a coin or larger. In severe cases, the hair may fall out from the whole head, including the eyebrows and beard, or the whole body. Alopecia areata may be caused by a problem with the immune system * in which immune cells attack the body's own follicles, for reasons that are not clear. The hair usually grows back on its own within 6 to 24 months.
Several medical conditions and treatments can cause hair loss in people of all ages and both sexes. Sometimes, people notice a lot of hair falling out within 1 to 3 months after having a high fever, a severe infection, or a major operation. Some women also lose a large amount of hair within a few months after giving birth. In addition, an overactive or underactive thyroid gland * can cause hair loss, as can ringworm (a fungus * infection) of the scalp. People with cancer often lose their hair during chemotherapy * . Other medications may cause hair loss as well, including blood thinners, birth control pills, and medicines for depression * and high blood pressure. Fortunately, this kind of hair loss usually is temporary. Typically, the hair grows back once the body adjusts, the disease is treated, or the medicine is stopped.
Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-a) is a psychological * disorder in which people pull out their own hair, leading to noticeable hair loss. The most commonly affected spots are the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes. This nervous habit may be a reaction to emotional stress or anxiety. It often begins in childhood, although it occurs in adults, too. The hair grows back once the hair pulling is stopped.
When people do not get enough protein from their diet, the body may try to save protein by shifting hairs from the growing stage to the resting stage. As a result, a large number of hairs may fall out 2 to 3 months later, when the resting stage ends. Lack of iron also can lead to hair loss. Eating a healthy diet or taking iron pills can prevent or reverse this problem.
* hormones are chemicals that produced by different glands in the body. Hormones are like the body's ambassadors: they are created in one place but are sent through the body to have specific regulatory effects in different places.
* menopause (MEN-oh-pawz) is time in a woman's life when she stops having periods and can no longer become pregnant.
* immune system is the body system that fights disease.
* thyroid gland (THY-roid GLAND) is located in the lower part of the front of the neck. The thyroid produces hormones that regulate the body's metabolism (me-TAB-o-LIZ-um). the processes the body uses to produce energy, to grow, and to maintain body tissues.
* fungus (FUN-gus) is any organism belonging to the kingdom Fungi (FUN-ji), which includes mushrooms, yeasts, and molds.
* chemotherapy (KEE-mo-THER-a-pee) is the treatment of cancer with powerful drugs that kill cancer cells.
* depression (de-PRESH-un) is a mental state characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, and discouragement.
* psychological (SI-ko-LOJ-i-kal) refers to mental processes, including thoughts, feelings, and emotions.
Improper hair care
Chemicals, such as dyes, bleaches, straighteners, and permanents, can damage the hair if used too often or left on too long. Even shampooing, brushing, and combing can harm the hair if done too roughly. Hairstyles that pull the hair, such as tight ponytails and braids, also put a lot of stress on it. Mistreating the hair in any of these ways can lead to temporary hair loss.
How Is the Cause of Hair Loss Identified?
People who experience sudden, fast, or unusual hair loss should see a physician, who can identify the cause. In some cases, doctors may decide that the baldness is simply due to aging. In other cases, doctors may check the scalp and take samples from it to look for signs of disease. In addition, doctors may pluck several hairs from one spot on the head. These hairs then are examined under a microscope to see whether they are in the growing or resting stage. The percentage of hairs in each stage can provide another clue to the cause of the hair loss.
How Is Baldness Treated?
Hair loss due to alopecia areata usually clears up on its own with time. In the meantime, the condition sometimes is treated with corticosteroid * medicines that are rubbed onto the skin or taken by mouth or in a shot.
Common baldness due to aging does not need treatment for medical reasons. However, some people seek help, because they are concerned about the way they look. There are several major treatment options.
Hairstyles, wigs, and hair additions
Simply getting the right haircut and styling the hair in a flattering way can make a big difference with thinning hair or scattered hair loss. For more widespread hair loss, wigs are an easy solution. Several kinds of partial wigs, known as hair additions, are available as well. They can be attached to the remaining hair or anchored to the scalp with special glues or fasteners.
Two medications are now approved in the United States for regrowing lost hair or preventing further hair loss: minoxidil (mi-NOK-si-dil) and finasteride (fi-NAS-ter-ide). Minoxidil (Rogaine) can be bought without a prescription. It is a liquid that is rubbed onto the scalp. Only about a quarter of men and a fifth of women who use regular-strength minoxidil regrow a significant amount of hair, and it may take several months before these results are noticeable. Any new hair that grows often is thinner and lighter in color than the original hair. Also, any hair growth that occurs will cease once the treatment is stopped.
Finasteride (Propecia) is a second drug, which is sold by prescription. It is taken in pill form. This drug is marketed only for men, because it has not been shown to work in women, and it can cause birth defects if used by pregnant women. More than four out of five men who use finasteride have a slowing of their hair loss, and more than three out of five may have some hair regrowth. As with minoxidil, though, it can take months to see these effects.
- Natural blondes have about 140,000 hairs on their head, on average. Brunettes have about 105,000 hairs, and redheads have about 90,000 hairs.
- At any given time, about 90 percent of the hairs on a person's head are growing. About 10 percent of the hairs are resting, getting ready to fall out.
* corticosteroid (KOR-ti-ko-STER-oid) is one of several medications that are prescribed to reduce inflammation and sometimes to suppress the body's immune response.
Hair transplantation (transplan-TAY-shun) surgery is a lasting but expensive solution to hair loss. People who might benefit from this kind of surgery include men and some women with common baldness. The surgery also may help people who have lost some hair as a result of burns to or scars on the scalp, eyebrows, or eyelashes. The operation involves cutting tiny plugs of hair-bearing scalp from parts of the head where hair still grows, and then reattaching the plugs to bald parts of the head. No new hair is added. Existing hair simply is moved from one spot to another. Since hundreds or even thousands of the tiny plugs must be moved to get good results, the procedure usually is done in several surgery sessions that are months apart. Sometimes, a larger flap of skin is moved instead of many tiny plugs.
Scalp reduction surgery is another procedure, which may be combined with hair transplantation. It involves removing a bald area of scalp from the top of the head, and then pulling the hair-bearing scalp forward to cover the area.
Coping with Hair Loss
Hair loss can be upsetting, even when it is temporary. Hairstyles, wigs, hair additions, hats, and bandannas can help hide hair loss if it makes a person uncomfortable. For many people, hair loss simply does not matter. Others wear their baldness with pride. Many even shave any remaining hair if the hair loss is patchy. Often, it is just a matter of style.
A Hairy Situation
Some people worry about having too little hair. Others worry about having too much. Hirsutism (HIR-soot-iz-uhm) is the medical term for excessive hair growth on the body and face, especially in women. Many women, particularly those of southern European and Middle Eastern descent, develop quite a bit of body and facial hair when they reach puberty. This is perfectly normal. In both women and men, the amount of body and facial hair often increases slowly with age. There is nothing abnormal or unhealthy about this, either.
If a person does not like the way the hair looks, it can be bleached or removed in a variety of ways. However, sometimes there is an increase in the growth of coarse, dark facial and body hair over a period of weeks or months. This can be a sign of a medical problem in which the level of androgens in the blood is abnormally high, as in certain disorders of the ovaries and adrenal glands.
Some medicines, such as steroids and certain blood pressure drugs, also may cause the growth of body and facial hair. In addition, anorexia nervosa (AN-o-REK-se-a ner-VO-sa), an eating disorder that involves self-starvation and often occurs in teenage girls, may cause an increase in fine body hair.
American Hair Loss Council, 401 N. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611.
This nonprofit group provides information about hair loss on its
American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons, 444 E.
Algonquin Road, Arlington Heights, IL 60005-4664. This organization for
surgeons provides information about hair replacement surgery on its
National Alopecia Areata Foundation, P.O. Box 150760, San Rafael, CA
94915-0760. This nonprofit group provides information about alopecia