Tapeworms, also called cestodes (SES-todes), infect humans worldwide, although they are rare in the United States. The most common species in humans are Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm, and Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.

Tay-Sachs Disease

Tay-Sachs disease is a rare metabolic disorder with severe neurologic (nervous system) symptoms. "Metabolic" refers to the body's chemical processes that produce protein and other substances, and break down nutrients to release energy.

Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome (TMJ)

Technically, TMJ stands for temporomandibular joint, or jaw joint, one of which is located on each side of the head. These joints are where the lower jaw, or mandible (MAN-di-bul), meets the temporal (TEM-po-ral) bone, which is one of a pair of bones that form the lower part of the skull.

Testicular Cancer

In February of 1997, while on tour with his professional ice skating show, former Olympic champion Scott Hamilton started experiencing sharp, shooting pains in his abdomen* and lower back. Assuming that he had pulled a muscle, he continued along with the tour.


Tetanus (TET-a-nus) is one of the oldest diseases known to afflict human beings. It is a disease that attacks the central nervous system, causing lockjaw and other symptoms.


Within moments after a finger is cut, platelets in the blood begin to gather at the injury. Platelets are tiny disc-shaped cells in the blood, much smaller than even a red blood cell.


Candida albicans is a single-celled fungus that is a natural inhabitant of the mouth. Usually, the body maintains a natural balance of microbes* in the mouth.

Thyroid Disease

The thyroid is an H-shaped gland that has two main parts, or lobes, that lie on either side of the trachea (TRAY-key-a) or windpipe. The lobes are connected by a narrow segment called the isthmus.


Tinnitus is a mysterious disorder that affects as many as 50 million Americans. The sound that people with tinnitus hear is often described as a ringing, but it also can resemble whistles, sizzles, clicks, roars, or other sounds too complex to describe easily.

Tobacco-Related Diseases

*stroke is a blocked or ruptured blood vessel within the brain, which deprives some brain cells of oxygen and thereby kills or damages these cells..


Until recent decades, the removal of tonsils was very common in child-hood. Many adults today recall the unlimited ice cream they were given to soothe throat pain after surgery.

Tourette Syndrome

When Daniel yelped out loud like a dog, and his classmates erupted with laughter, Ms. Jones sent him to the school office.

Toxic Shock Syndrome

Between October 1979 and May 1980, doctors all over the United States began reporting a new illness to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia. Fifty-five women between the ages of 13 and 52 had shown up with symptoms of serious infections.


Many cats and dogs, especially kittens and puppies, have intestinal worms called Toxocara canis (in dogs) or Toxocara cati (in cats). Eggs from Toxocara pass with the stools from infected cats and dogs and then contaminate the soil.


Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the microscopic parasite* Toxo-plasma gondii, which infects the cells of warm-blooded animals, especially cats. People get toxoplasmosis primarily by eating infected meat that has been undercooked.


Marcus was 16 years old and in a car with four other teenagers. The driver was going too fast, missed a curve, and smashed into a tree.


One winter day in 1995, a hunter in Idaho shot a cougar and decided to use it to make jerky, a kind of dried meat. After soaking it in saltwater, he smoked the meat.


Hippocrates, a Greek physician who today is called "the father of medicine," accurately described tuberculosis (TB) about 2,400 years ago when he coined the term "phthis," which means to melt and to waste away. In later years, tuberculosis was called consumption, because people with TB tended to waste away as if they were being slowly consumed.


The human body is made up of many types of cells that are constantly dividing to produce new, younger cells that can "take over" for aging or damaged cells. Through this process, the body heals its injuries and keeps tissues healthy.

Turner Syndrome

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that occurs when one of a girl's X chromosomes is partially or completely missing. Almost every cell in a person's body (except for eggs and sperm cells) has 23 pairs of chromosomes.

Typhoid Fever

In many developing countries, typhoid fever is a major problem. It is estimated to cause 16 million illnesses and more than half a million deaths each year worldwide.


Throughout history, war and famine have brought outbreaks of typhus, a group of infections spread by parasites that live on people or animals such as rats and mice. During World War II, typhus spread through Europe, North Africa, and the Pacific Islands, and it killed thousands of prisoners in German concentration camps.